Pages

Monday, December 31, 2012

Singapore Mammals

Class Mammalia


Shrews
House Shrew (Suncus murinus) Southeast Asian White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura fuliginosa)
no photo no photo

Pangolins
Sunda Pangolin (Manis javanica)
no photo

Carnivores
Common Palm Civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) Three-striped Palm Civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata) Large Indian Civet (Viverra zibetha) Malay Civet (Viverra tangalunga)
no photo no photo

Asian Small-clawed Otter (Aonyx cinereus) Smooth Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)

Dugong Elephant
Dugong (Dugong dugon) Asian Elephant (Elaphas maximus)
no photo

Cetaceans
Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Irrawaddy Dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris)
no photo
Risso's Dolphin (Grampus griseus) Fraser's Dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei) False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens) Pantropical Spotted Dolphin (Stenella attenuata)
no photo no photo no photo no photo
Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) Sei Whale (Balaenoptera borealis) Bryde's Whale (Balaenoptera edeni)
no photo no photo no photo no photo

Even-toed Ungulates
Wild Pig (Sus scrofa) Sambar (Rusa unicolor) Lesser Mousedeer (Tragulus kancil) Greater Mousedeer (Tragulus napu)
no photo

Rodents
Asian House Mouse (Mus castaneus) Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Asian House Rat (Rattus tanezumi) Polynesian Rat (Rattus exulans)
no photo no photo
Malaysian Wood Rat (Rattus tiomanicus) Singapore Rat (Rattus annandalei) Brown Spiny Rat (Maxomys rajah) Red Spiny Rat (Maxomys surifer)
no photo no photo no photo no photo
Plantain Squirrel (Callosciurus notatus) Variable Squirrel (Callosciurus finlaysonii) Slender Squirrel (Sundasciurus tenuis) Cream-coloured Giant Squirrel (Ratufa affinis)
Shrew-faced Ground Squirrel (Rhinosciurus laticaudatus) Red-cheeked Flying Squirrel (Hylopetes spadiceus) Horsfield's Flying Squirrel (Iomys horsfieldii) Red Giant Flying Squirrel (Petaurista petaurista)
no photo no photo no photo no photo
Malaysian Porcupine (Hystrix brachyura)

Bats
Malayan Flying Fox (Pteropus vampyrus) Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat (Cynopterus brachyotis) Dusky Fruit Bat (Penthetor lucasi) Common Long-tongued Fruit Bat (Macroglossus minimus)
no photo no photo
Cave Nectar Bat (Eonycteris spelaea) Lesser Sheath-tailed Bat (Emballonura monticola) Black-bearded Tomb Bat (Taphozous melanopogon) Pouched Tomb Bat (Saccolaimus saccolaimus)
no photo no photo
Southeast Asian Hollow-faced Bat (Nycteris tragata) Lesser False Vampire (Megaderma spasma) Glossy Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus lepidus) Trefoil Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus trifoliatus)
no photo no photo no photo
Woolly Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus luctus) Bicolored Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros bicolor) Hardwicke's Woolly Bat (Kerivoula hardwickii) Whiskered Myotis (Myotis muricola)
no photo no photo no photo
Grey Large-footed Myotis (Myotis adversus) Lesser Asiatic Yellow House Bat (Scotophilus kuhlii) Lesser Bamboo Bat (Tylonycteris pachypus) Greater Bamboo Bat (Tylonycteris robustula)
no photo no photo no photo no photo
Javan Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus javanicus) Narrow-winged Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus stenopterus) Brown Tube-nosed Bat (Murina suilla) Naked Bulldog Bat (Cheiromeles torquatus)
no photo no photo no photo no photo

Treeshrews Colugos
Common Treeshrew (Tupaia glis) Malayan Colugo (Cynocephalus variegatus)

Primates
Slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang) Long-tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) Banded Leaf Monkey (Presbytis femoralis)
no photo

Primates

Order Primates


This order contains lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes. There are 3 species in Singapore - Slow Loris, Long-tailed Macaque and Banded Leaf Monkey.

Slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang)

It is nocturnal and rarely encountered.

Long-tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

One of the most common mammals in Singapore. It is also called the Crab-eating Macaque.


Left: Female at Lower Peirce ©Melvin Dionio. Right: Male at East Coast ©Sylvia Chua

Banded Leaf Monkey (Presbytis femoralis)

The only other monkey that can still be found in Singapore. There are about 40 of them in the Central Catchment.


Malaysia ©Eddy Lee

Colugo

Order Dermoptera


This order contains only 1 family (Cynocephalidae) with 2 species - Philippines Colugo (Cynocephalus volans)and Malayan Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus). Colugos are also called Flying Lemurs because it is able to glide from tree to tree. It is, however, not a lemur at all.

There is 1 species in Singapore, namely the Malayan Colugo. Although uncommonly seen, it is doing quite well in the Central Catchment. It is also known as Sunda Colugo or Malayan Flying Lemur.


Chestnut Trail ©Eddy Lee


Left: Brown variant. Right: With baby at Seletar ©Eddy Lee


Mother and child at Central Catchment ©Lau JS


Wild colugos within Singapore Zoo compound ©Tan KH


Left: Hindhede Nature Park ©Tan KH. Right: With a baby ©Tan GC

Treeshrew

Order Scandentia


This order contains 20 species of treeshrews. They resemble shrews, but are actually more related to primates. There is 1 species in Singapore, namely Common Treeshrew (Tupaia glis).


Malaysia ©Con Foley

Bats

Order Chiroptera


This order contains the flying mammals - bats. There are 24 species in Singapore.

Megabats (Suborder Megachiroptera)

Megabats are also called Fruit Bats. This suborder contains a single family (Family Pteropodidae). They are fruit/nectar eaters as opposed to the microbats (Suborder Microchiroptera), which are mainly insect eaters (although some feed on blood, fish or nectar).

There are 5 confirmed species in Singapore. 2 others - Island Flying Fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) and Short-nosed Fruit Bat (Cynopterus sphinx) - need to be confirmed.

Malayan Flying Fox (Pteropus vampyrus) - Rare
Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat (Cynopterus brachyotis) - Common
Dusky Fruit Bat (Penthetor lucasi) - Uncommon
Common Long-tongued Fruit Bat (Macroglossus minimus) - Rare
Cave Nectar Bat (Eonycteris spelaea) - Common

Malayan Flying Fox (Pteropus vampyrus)

This is the largest fruit bat that can be found in Singapore.


Singapore Zoo ©Tan KH

Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat (Cynopterus brachyotis)

This is the most common fruit/nectar-eating bat in Singapore. It is also known as the Common Fruit Bat. It roosts under broad leaves (e.g. palm, banana leaves) and usually occurs in a group. Although mainly nocturnal, it can sometimes be seen in broad daylight. The female has a yellow collar, while the male has a red collar.


Left: female. Right: male ©Eddy Lee


Roosting. Left: under building ©Eddy Lee. Right: Under palm tree ©Tan GC


In the Singapore Zoo compound ©Tan KH

Cave Nectar Bat (Eonycteris spelaea)

This is a dark-coloured bat with greyish belly.


Rifle Range ©Eddy Lee

Rifle Range ©Danny Lau

Microbats (Microchiroptera)

Microbats are smaller than the megabats. They are mainly insect eaters, although some eat blood, fish, nectar, fruits and even small mammals. Most use echolocation to detect prey. In 2005, it was thought that only 15 species of microbats are left in Singapore[1,2]. However, with recent discovery and rediscoveries[3,4,5,6], our microbat diversity has took a leap to 19 species.

This raises hope for the rediscovery of the 6 extirpated species: Lesser Woolly Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus sedulus), Lesser Brown Horseshoe Bat (R. stheno), Fawn Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros cervinus), Ridley's Roundleaf Bat (H. ridleyi), Singapore Whiskered Bat (Myotis oreias) and Wrinkle-lipped Free-tailed Bat (Chaerephon plicatus). Of these, the Singapore Whiskered Bat is the most interesting, being the only species thought to be endemic to Singapore[7].

There are now 19 species in Singapore.

Lesser Sheath-tailed Bat (Emballonura monticola) - Rare
Black-bearded Tomb Bat (Taphozous melanopogon) - Rare
Pouched Tomb Bat (Saccolaimus saccolaimus) - Common
Southeast Asian Hollow-faced Bat (Nycteris tragata) - Rare
Lesser False Vampire (Megaderma spasma) - Rare
Glossy Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus lepidus) - Common
Trefoil Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus trifoliatus) - Rare
Woolly Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus luctus) - Rare
Bicolored Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros bicolor) - Rare
Hardwicke's Woolly Bat (Kerivoula hardwickii) - Rare
Whiskered Myotis (Myotis muricola) - Common
Grey Large-footed Myotis (Myotis adversus) - Common
Lesser Asiatic Yellow House Bat (Scotophilus kuhlii) - Common
Lesser Bamboo Bat (Tylonycteris pachypus) - Rare
Greater Bamboo Bat (Tylonycteris robustula) - Uncommon
Javan Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus javanicus) - Rare
Narrow-winged Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus stenopterus) - Rare
Brown Tube-nosed Bat (Murina suilla) - Rare
Naked Bulldog Bat (Cheiromeles torquatus) - Rare

Lesser Sheath-tailed Bat (Emballonura monticola)

Sheath-tailed Bats are so called because the tail is hidden in the skin between the tails. This species is the smallest of them all, hence its name.


Malaysia. Left: ©Con Foley. Right: ©Eddy Lee

Trefoil Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus trifoliatus)

Horseshoe bats are so called because of the facial pattern which looks like a horseshoe. This species has yellow ears.


Malaysia ©Con Foley

Whiskered Myotis (Myotis muricola)

This is a common insectivorous bat in Singapore.


Whiskered Myotis at Woodlands ©Tan KH

References
[1] http://www.mbcru.com/index_files/Pottie%20et%20al.%202005--Acta.pdf
[2] http://www.mbcru.com/index_files/Lane%20et%20al.%202006.pdf
[3] http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/nis/bulletin2009/2009nis83-90.pdf
[4] http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/nis/bulletin2009/2009nis215-230.pdf
[5] http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/nis/bulletin2009/2009nis323-327.pdf
[6] http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/nis/bulletin2010/2010nis159-165.pdf
[7] http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/14186/0